Scenario: The 2016 Competition will incorporate consideration of all phases of disaster response – the initial phase which requires “emergency” shelters, the second phase which requires “transitional” shelters (1-3 years), and the final phase which requires permanent shelters.
The Competition design scenario for 2016 for the Transitional (or Core) Shelter is a displacement/refugee scenario in which victims have fled and have little or nothing by way of physical belongings, specifically the refugee crises currently in progress in the Middle East and Eastern Europe with Syrian and Afghan refugees fleeing to the mountains of Albania and Macedonia. The Sphere Standards are applicable for design, with consideration of 1) local materials and culture, and 2) how cooking and sanitation will be done (i.e. the shelters do not have to provide cooking and sanitation as part of proto-type, but consider how it could be done with their proto-type). Teams will also be asked to consider how their shelter and materials could be either transitioned into permanent housing or how the materials could be used to build permanent housing in the future. The prototypes will be brought to JBU for presentation and testing (earthquake, time to assemble, heat retention, habitability, wind/water), as with past Competitions.
To incorporate consideration by the teams of the shelter considerations during the early stages of a disaster, there will also be an additional Emergency Shelter Event that will be part of the competition but will be scored separately and will have separate awards. This event will address consideration of the initial phase after a disaster during which shelter is created from whatever materials are available at the disaster site. This scenario is a tropical storm like Cyclone Yolanda in the Philippines. A tidal wave of 20-30 feet, 2-3km of destruction in land on the coast, winds of 160 mph+, and massive structure damage. The Emergency Shelter will need to withstand high winds, heavy rain, and pounding sun. Teams will not need to bring anything for this phase but will each be given a kit at the Competition site with basic materials and tools (set number of dimension boards, plastic sheeting, bag of tools, nails, steel wire and Corrugated Galvanized Iron), some basic standards that must be met (e.g. height, area, wind and water resistance) and will have about 3 hours to construct a usable Emergency Shelter. These shelters will be tested with wind and water. Grading will be on ingenuity, habitability, time required to construct, and performance during wind and water tests. Teams can prepare for this by doing some research beforehand on emergency shelters, but they do not need to bring a design or proto-type.
Standards: Transitional Shelter Prototype designs should meet Sphere Standards and other appropriate internationally accepted standards (located at http://www.sphereproject.org/).
Accommodation Requirements: The shelter design must:
- Accommodate a family of 4 with a minimum allocation of 3.5 square meters of space per person
- Note: Shelter footprint must not exceed competition earthquake shake table sized at 16’ x 20’.
- Height must allow standing head clearance of 2 meters for at least 70% of the floor space
- Provide dignified accommodation for a family, with adequate flexibility to respond to social, cultural and religious requirements (e.g. the use of spaces by different genders and ages).
- Shelter should take into account potential cultural considerations or sensitivities.
- Versatile and responsive to the scenario environmental conditions that may vary geographically, seasonally and diurnally (from day to night) within the scenario area.
- Provide protection from extremely hot summers, and cold and rainy winters.
- Ability for floor covering to prevent conductive heat loss and exposure to dusty ground
- Perform well structurally against:
- Wind loads (withstand 75 km/hour wind)
- Seismic loads, similar to withstand earthquake of same magnitude that devastated Haiti
g. design according to seismic acceleration factor Ss of 1.24 and S1 of 0.56 - as per use in Haiti according to US earthquake codes ASCE 7-02
- Versatility in design to allow adequate airflow for natural ventilation in hot climates is critical
- Ability to retain heat due to significant changes in temperatures during day/night and summer/winter.
- Can be erected in a variety of topographical and geological conditions – from sandy to rocky landscapes, flat or sloping
- Must demonstrate that the structure is reusable (i.e. can be redeployed for another disaster).
- Must be upgradeable to something more permanent by the shelter users, using local materials, techniques, and skills, as per transitional features mentioned above
- Allow for grouping of structures for expansion or use for purposes other than habitation
Materiality, Cost-Effectiveness, Packaging and Transport:
- Minimum lifespan of 1 year – longer is better
- Cost-effective: $1500 or less to fabricate. Economy of scale during the production phase should be considered as vitally important. Teams must submit documentation to verify the cost of materials used in the shelter. Donated materials not priced will be assigned a cost by the judges.
- A business case analysis should be completed to show the viability of mass manufacture of the shelters. Format for the analysis is provided as a separate attachment.
- Lightweight: Overall weight should be minimized; ideally no more than 200 kg per package to allow handling without equipment.
- Easily stored and transported i.e. manufactured so that it can be flat-packed and fits into a standard 8’ x 40’ shipping container (note that the interior of an 8’ x 40’ shipping container is not exactly 8’ x 40’).
- Packable for most efficient use of 8’ x 40’ shipping containers (i.e. packages should be designed to fit in shipping container with minimal wasted space).
- Easy and rapid to assemble without technical experience. Assembly should be straightforward and require minimal manpower, non-electrical tools - that is, simple hand tools that are generally available around the world.