Photo: Time Periods

Time Periods

Archaeological Time Periods for Syria-Palestine

These date are approximate. Scholars disagree about such dates, which are constantly being refined with continuing discoveries of new archaeological evidence.

Paleolithic: 700,000--14,000 BC

Epipaleolithic: 14,000--8000 BC

Neolithic: 8000--4200 BC

Chalcolithic: 4200--3300 BC

Early Bronze(EB) Age 3300--2100 BC
   EB I: 3300--2850 BC
   EB II: 2850--2650 BC
   EB III: 2650--2350 BC
   EB IV: 2350--2100 BC

Middle Bronze(MB) Age 2100--1550 BC
   MB I: 2100--1950 BC
   MB IIA: 1950--1750 BC
   MB IIB: 1750--1650 BC
   MB IIC: 1650--1550 BC

Late Bronze(LB) Age 1550--1200 BC
   LB I: 1550--1400 BC
   LB II: 1400--1300 BC
   LB III: 1300--1200 BC

Iron Age 1200--539 BC
   Iron I: 1200--900 BC
   Iron II: 900--721 BC
   Iron IIB: 721--606 BC
   Iron IIC: 606--539 BC

Persian Period 539--332 BC

Hellenistic Period 332--63 BC
   Early Hellenistic: 332--198 BC
   Late Hellenistic: 198--63 BC

Roman Period 63 BC--AD 324
   Early Roman: 63 BC--AD 135
   Late Roman: AD 135--324

Byzantine Period AD 324--640
   Early Byzantine: AD 324--491
   Late Byzantine: AD 491--640

Early Islamic Period 640--1174 CE
   Umayyad: 661--750 CE
   Abbasid: 750--878 CE
   Fatamid: 969--1174 CE

Crusades 1099--1291 CE

Late Islamic Period 1174--1918 CE
   Ayyubid: 1174--1250 CE
   Mamluk: 1250--1516 CE
   Ottoman: 1516--1918 CE

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